Mathematical methods for determining the characteristics of superficial and subsurface structures of the Earth in the short-wave range of radio waves
M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Belov_Sergej@Mail.Ru
The problem of remotely diagnosing a "rough" earth surface and dielectric subsurface structures in the short-wave radio wave band in order to document evidence of environmental change is considered here. A new incoherent method for estimating the signal-to-noise parameter is proposed. Consideration is carried out on an example for an ionospheric case. This range makes it possible to diagnose a subsurface layer of the earth, since the scattering parameter is also determined by inhomogeneities in the dielectric permeability of subsurface structures. By using this method to organize a monitoring program through sounding, it is possible to identify the areas of variation for these media, for example, for assessing seismic hazard, hazardous natural phenomena, changes in ecosystems, and also some extreme events of anthropogenic nature. Also, these techniques can be used to develop a system for monitoring and forecasting emergencies of a natural and man-made nature, as well as for (1) assessing the risks of emergencies, (2) geological, archaeological, and environmental research, and (3) studying the geology if needed, in the field, via modern research methods and equipment. The idea underlying the method for determining this parameter is that, by having synchronous information about a wave reflected from the ionosphere and one reflected from the earth and the ionosphere (or having passed through the ionosphere twice when probing from a satellite), it is possible to extract information about the scattering parameter. This paper describes how results are obtained from the recording of quadrature components of the signal using ground measurements from a coherent sounding in the short-wave range of radio waves at the test site of the Moscow State University (Moscow). A comparative analysis was performed, and it showed that, according to the analytical (relative) accuracy of the definition of this parameter, the new method is an order of magnitude better than the widely used standard method. Evaluation of the analytical errors in estimating this parameter prompt us to recommend the new method instead of the standard one.
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